Mike Petersen

Cooperative Research with Ohio State University

Take a look in the Articles section of this webpage to read a first report that we have obtained from Ohio State University under the direction of Dr. John Fulton.  It is the first of a multi-part series we at Orthman are pleased to bring to you for reading and updates of how Strip-Till functions in the Eastern Corn Belt.

by:  Mike Petersen, Lead Agronomist, Orthman Manufacturing, Inc.

1st Report from Orthman Cooperative Ohio State University Strip-Till Research

First year of a Long Term Research Program with The Ohio State University
field work done by Trey Colley

Mike Petersen here, we at Orthman have joined hands and feet as well as a 1tRIPr strip-tillage implement to the Agricultural-Bioengineering Department at Ohio State University to investigate how strip-tillage can be effective in the corn-soybean rotation of the Eastern Corn Belt region.  Specifically Ohio, Eastern Indiana are the states being considered. The program is to gain solid data on the intensity (low to high) of soil compaction in No-Till situations as well as Strip-Tillage, these are two tillage systems that are being promoted for conservation, fuel reduction, improvements in Soil Health, economics, reducing labor, improvements in placement of nutrients and crop health.  Dr. John Fulton and his very capable research assistant Trey Colley III have released some good data through the publication “2017 eFields Report” that I want to share as we await on the 2018 results which I will be reporting as soon as we have it in our hands.

Within this tillage study at the Western Ag Research Station near South Charleston, Ohio; the field scientists strip tilled, gaged all against Direct Seeding (No-Till) with varying downforce at planting time.  Soybeans, a Pioneer variety was planted at 130K seeds per acre.  The planter used was a CNH 2150 16 row planter with Precision ‘DeltaForce’ downforce controls.  The measurements were taken early to see what would happen with emergence and then to yield.  Also the scientists studied running the shank strip-till tool at 4 inches and then at 8-9 inches to determine if yield would be impacted.  August and September 2017 remained drier than seasonal norms which influenced yield retreats.

Fig. 1   Depiction of the 2017 study with Soybeans to determine the effects of No-Till versus Strip-Tilled to 8 inches with fertility/nutrients surface applied in the Direct Seeding (shown on the left) and positive placement below the seed with the 1tRIPr tool (shown on the right).  Nutrient source (dry fertilizer) was broadcast in the No-Till and precision placed at 4.5 inches behind the 1tRIPr shank.  You are seeing rootzone as the seed would be placed.

Fig. 2  Depiction of the Strip-Tilled zone after the planter pass at the heaviest downforce applied versus the 100lbs of force.  The soil compression was minimal to the rootzone.  Image to your left.

 

 

 

 

 

The soils in this field of the study are Kokomo silty clay and Strawn-Crosby complex, about a 40-60% proportion of the field.  Mr. Colley was then tasked to look at what the differences may be with emergence in where No-Till as the control is compared to Strip-Till with the same varying downforce applied.  The following chart describes the results for emergence and then yield.

Table 1.  Data depicts that at the higher amount of downforce in these silty clay soils the emergence was down from the 88% with No-Till but then at harvest the yields were same.

Treatments Tillage System Applied Downforce (lbs) Emergence (%) Yield (bu/ac) 
Control No-Till 100 87.9 61
Optimal Strip-Till 100 82.1 59
Heavy Strip-Till 195 79.6 61
Light Strip-Till 50 76.9 61
   Note:  soil texture of topsoil is silty clay
planted on June 1st 2017

Remarks from Orthman:  As we see this after the facts are in, the No-Till system and the Strip-Till system are very similar in results.  The seed-to-soil contact was slightly different in the very beginning yet it is our observation that the rootzone allowed the root system to expand and obtain nutrients and water equal to if not slightly better during the dry period that western Ohio experienced from July 16 to October 1st.   During that 45 day period 3.05 inches fell in several small showers of 0.1 to 0.3”  with dry warm days in the low 80’s.

Drawing some Conclusions:

  • No statistically significant yield benefits to utilizing different downforce control systems on the planter, however the OSU scientists felt there was emergence differences.
  • The highest downforce level achieved di not over compact the soil
  • Optimal (100psi) downforce provided the best emergence of the strip-till treatment with equal yield as the No-Till
  • Strip-Till very effectively reduced the compaction in the soil which from the field observations and early plant stage root digs showed improved root proliferation of the soybean plants.

 

We will be offering further results from this study in a follow up report from Mr. Colley’s research efforts.  Do stay tuned!

A Final Report on Colorado State Univ. Cooperative Strip-Till Study

Image result for strip till with Colorado State University
Study at CSU ARDEC Farm and also at the Fruita, Colorado site used the Orthman 1tRIPr

Mike Petersen Making You Aware of a Published Report                               December 2018

Throughout a three year study in furrow irrigated crop study at the ARDEC Facility north of Fort Collins, Colorado that was determined by farmer input to see how Strip-Till worked in the furrow irrigation environment; we at Orthman played a role in what transpired.  The scientists at CSU published a report that many of you have not seen or read.  I was part of what Troy, Calvin, and Eric completed and I add kudos to the excellent study and then this Technical Release Bulletin.  Please as to your reading pleasure read what was accomplished and the economics.  You may even want to download and print it off.  Click on the link URL below:

http://www.conservationtillage.colostate.edu/TR15-10_Conservation-Tillage-Furrow-Irrigation_Web.pdf

From my standpoint email me or call and I can offer thoughts, comments of the 3 year study.  The men in the field determined that the Orthman 1tRIPr was a good tool to facilitate the top notch Strip-Till System approach.

Texas Agri-Life Offers a Look at Cover Crops

From Texas Agri-Life Announced in November 2018—Some ideas about Cover Crops

An overwhelming amount of news and buzz across the country has to do with Cover Crops and what they can do for Soil Health.  I get it where the moisture is adequate to bountiful.  Consider those folks in the more arid zones; regions of the country with less than 18 inches of moisture falls throughout the year and maybe only 7 of those during the actual growing season – they face a different dilemma.

The good folks in Kansas, Oklahoma, and now Texas where in the past years have grown >5M acres of cotton, are expressing an urge of caution and cognitive thinking about Cover Crops being the answer to the plight of farmers in regards to Soil Health.

May I point you to a recent article well expressed from Texas.  Published in Southwest Farm Press, Shelley Huguley offers some information that has points to consider.
Just press control-click on the link below…

https://www.southwestfarmpress.com/cover-crops/cover-cropping-may-not-be-everyone

Time Restores Many Things – Little Details of Why to Strip-Till

Digging to give you the best information regarding soils as I know how.

Welcome to Precision Tillage, again!  As the Orthman agronomist (me – Mike Petersen) it is good to be part of the Orthman team where we really do desire to help many, many growers become better at what they do with their two very important resources — soils and water to grow top producing crops.  It is not only my desire but all of us who at Orthman work with people directly working in Agriculture to be proactive with your farming operation. At Orthman we not only want to assist growers, but join with implement dealers/salesmen, seedsmen, fertilizer dealers or suppliers, educators fathom the depth of the Strip Till story and what great benefits are to be had.

This season for starters, we are seeing East-Central Nebraska soybean harvest essentially complete where with positive placed by an Orthman 1tRIPr and dry nutrients prior to planting back in April yields are tipping the scales at the 88-105bu/acre mark compared to no added nutrients of 69 bu/acre. A 19-35 bushel increase truly has some impact to the bottomline even with the price down so much.   We are hearing from our strip-till growers that corn is closing in on the final few rounds in many states, then some not with the recent wet via rain and snows.

This year from my travels with Orthman Manufacturing, strip-till as a system has caught the eye of politicians and leaders in the Great Lake States on a sound method to minimize soluble phosphorus getting into the rivers and streams that feed Lake Erie.  Growers have been identified in certain watersheds that they are contributors and they are under some scrutiny.  We at Orthman are working hand-in-hand with Ohio State University to study issues surrounding the phosphorus loading and how to be proactive and offer solutions that minimize soluble phosphorus runoff.  Stay tuned and we will bring you more information.  Believe me that applies in many other watersheds than just Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, New York and others.

Why do we see Phosphorus a limited nutrient?

by:  Michael Petersen, Orthman Agronomist

 

We are well aware for the most of us in the Farming world that phosphorus (P) is a limiting nutrient for top yields, stalk health, reproductive health right around flowering, early vigorous growth in corn especially and in western United States calcareous soils gets tied up.

On this site I will be looking into articulating what those limitations are.  Sure we see Universities talk at great lengths about N and some about P and its importance – but with the phosphorus mines across this nation being mined heavily, rapidly diminishing rock phosphate sources hold concerns about what the future brings.

Microbiologically the number of species that work directly on organic sources and the P fertilizers we apply are not that high in number.  They are predominantly aerobic (requiring oxygen to respire/live) creatures. Penicillium, Psuedomonas, and  I want to focus on Bacillus subtilis, member of the Firmicutes phylum.  This strain of bacteria are one of the most common that work on phosphate we fertilize with.

Bacillus subtilis is known to have a symbiotic relationship with the Azotobacter (a nitrogen-fixer affiliated bacteria) only six species of this cyst forming aerobic bacteria exist. These two work together on insoluble phosphorus within soil normally that is material like rock phosphate in dry fertilizers. The phosphorus gets trapped with the clay particles and begins to freeze ionic speaking, because the phosphate ion tightly bonds to the positive cations (calcium, iron, magnesium, silicon, and aluminum) found in the soil. B. subtilis coordinates with Azotobacter vinelandia by helping to release the phosphate bonds and release the phosphate (PO4) throughout the upper 6 to 10 inches of the soil profile. Without the addition of B. subtilis, the phosphorus can’t do its job effectively and further hinders agriculture. The phosphorus can’t move around to the plants and help maintain prosperous growth. Soil microbiologists consider B. subtilis and arbuscular mycorrhizae are  both a good alternative to insoluble phosphate fertilizers.

Scientists out of the microbiology world have discovered that B. subtilis and Azotobacter can be an aid to seed germination which is a big deal in certain seed crops like sorghum, canola, and small seeded vegetables. B. subtilis is able to take up DNA from its environment and creat antibiotics for itself and the host plant root it lives on to protect it from pathogens.  Quite the organism to aid a plant due to the net it makes to help its host.  See the figure below – electron micrograph image of the Bacillus subtillis colony and the net it produces around the colony. The strands you see are actually millions of these microbes swarming and releasing a slime layer which is what you see to the outside of the image, making the colony mobile to move about on root surfaces or on the soil liquid interface.  Probably more than you wanted to know, but think about the lack of mobility of P in the soil; here the microbes distribute what they use and secrete away.

B_subtilis_colony
Color electron micrograph of a colony of Bacillus subtilis on a media plate

Because B. subtilis is mobile with flagella (short string-like tails act as whips to scuttle the bacteria cells around on the root surface and in the soil solution) this bacteria can redistribute PO4 in the upper portions of the soil profile (0-9 inches) and feed roots in that section.

Another biological phenomena in the soil surface horizons is the arbuscular mycorrhizae that can infect roots to live inside the cortex of the roots symbiotically and bring N, P, S and Zn back to its host.  These ultra thin strands or hyphae that extend out of the infected root cells grows outward to access soil organics, humic acids, peptides, polysaccharides (complex sugars), a host of cellulosic materials – all to feed its host which requires simple sugars from the plant.  The plant gets the much better side of this relationship.

Microbes are extremely important to the breakdown of P in soils, can dislodge the tightly bound PO4 ions and make them able to interact with the roots.  Cyanobacteria, specific species of Glomus sp. mycorrhizae are included in the list of phosphorus solubilizing microbes which has Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp., and Actinomycetes a very robust group of bacteria in cropland soils.  Scientists have determined that the Actinomycetes are able to withstand dramatic temperature fluctuations from hot to cold and remain viable and energetic to solubilize phosphorus in the organic fraction and added phosphate fertilizers.  For those who are small grain farmers in with their row crops; the dryland farmers who have wheat and corn in rotation – you have an added advantage that wheat residues and old wheat roots are occupied by several genus of bacteria that remain to be phosphate solubilizers for the next crop.  For those of you that consider cover crops or companion crops, wheat has this relationship to continue a so-called home for these bacteria.

All great bits of information to provide you with tools and knowledge that the soils can be managed to aid with releasing P naturally and not use so much added phosphate.

 

Sources for this post:
Schaechter, Ingraham, and Neidhardt in Microbe. ASM Press 2006
Todar, K. “Todars OnLine Textbook of Bacteriology
Morikawa, M. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 2006 Vol 101, #1, 1-8
Sharma et.al., Phosphate solubilizing microbes sustainable approach for managing phosphorus deficiency in agricultural soils. Springer Plus 2013, 2:587