Fall Shows with Orthman Manufacturing – Strip-Till Is a Three Pillared Approach

As an agronomic team we are wanting to share our focus for Strip-Tillage across North America and abroad. Catch up with us at the fall Farm Shows and Demos we are carrying out across the country. Creating the premium seedbed, offering you the grower the highest quality, precise placement of your pre-plant fertilizers and last, the optimum root zone for season long results in the soil. Check us out or call!

Mike Petersen, Agronomist for Orthman has written an article (click here to read) just this month that discusses the real stuff about soil pores in Strip Tillage compared to pores in No-Till that has been studied now for 4 years at the Orthman Research and Demonstration Farm near Lexington, Nebraska.

Spring time pore studies on Orthman Research Farm – Results!

Mike Petersen compares soil pores in Strip-Till after four years of continuous corn as well as 4 years of continuous corn in No-Till.

Coming back to the Benefits of Strip-Till and Pores in the Near Surface
Sept. 17, 2013    By: Mike Petersen, Lead Agronomist-Orthman Manufacturing

Early in the growing season we presented a blog regarding that pores were being looked at closely in the Strip-Tilled (ST) ground and No-Tilled (NT) ground at the Orthman Research Farm.  We have looked at this and 101 other details throughout the season and feel it is the right time to offer you some thoughts and conclusions.  My intern and I dug more soil pits than he cares to remember as he is deep into his college studies now, some of them when the temps were touching 100°F by 2:00 in the afternoon.

Developing the 10cm x 10cm block

During my stint of 34 years with USDA as a soil scientist we described pores, pore numbers, size, shape and continuity as we conducted soil surveys.  Pore research is intricate work and quite informative once the process and methodology is explained.  Let me be brief; pores are pretty much categorized by size – less than 1mm in diameter, 1 to 2 mm, 2 to 5mm and then greater than 5mm.  Get above that size and we are into void or holes.  Then we determine an actual count within a square decimeter (10cm x 10cm) and the pores shape.  The shape indicates whether they are old insect burrows, old root channels, solution channels, earthworm burrows and/or interstitial crevices.  All of these pores assist in the soil breathing and allowing water to move downward into the soil profile.  An observer may count several hundred pores of all sizes in native grassland soils or in soils that have suffered the fate of abundant tillage passes and heavy traffic to see less than one dozen in the square decimeter.  Essentially like concrete and impervious to water.

Our study at the Orthman Research Farm was fairly complete in that we looked at 27 in-field locations within the ST and 21 sites for the NT practice.  We made these observations after 4 years of continuous corn of NT and ST and moving the location of planting corn over 15 inches each year then digging out our blocks between the existing corn right after planting as corn was emerging.

Method:

Excavate a 30cm x 30cm block of soil from between the rows of emerging corn, shave off the upper two inches where all the residue was on top and the loose soil from winters freeze-thaw repeated and fluffed the soil surface.  Next we cut out with a sharp knife a 10cm x 10cm block that essentially allowed us to observe the 2 to 6 inch portion of the soil profile. Shaved the four surfaces flat when moist and with the point of the knife picked each face to be expressing a raw face.  Used the blades point to etch a quadrat on the face so we could count four smaller squares and begin counting the three sizes I mentioned above in the second paragraph (not the >5mm).

We would each count until our eyes crossed (well maybe not literally but we did run out of fingers and toes numerous times!) The observations are completed with a 10 magnification geologists hand lens and recorded.

Our results of the Pore Counts:
Table 1.  Data from the Strip-Tilled and No-Tilled sites at Orthman Farm, continuous corn from 2009-2014 and tillage practices remained in same rows all 4 years. Pores counted on 10cm x 10cm soil blocks from the 2 to 6 inch depth.

Location ST <1mm ST 1-2mm ST 2-5mm ST Total NT <1mm NT 1-2mm NT 2-5mm NT Total
Site 1 295 26 7 328 97 4 4 105
Site 2 218 20 9 328 82 8 3 93
Site 3 211 13 2 328 203 29 12 244
Site 4
Site 5 200 42 8 328 98 12 2 112
Site 6 188 59 14 328 74 6 11 91
Site 7 80 18 11 328 86 9 2 97
Site 8 96 25 5 328 142 8 7 157
Site 9 144 18 6 328 178 15 8 201
Site 10 113 12 4 328 147 11 3 161
Site 11 179 28 4 328 144 20 8 110
Site 12 149 22 7 328 81 21 8 90
Site 13 211 22 11 328 69 15 6 153
Site 14 242 32 20 328 135 15 3 131
Site 15 288 41 22 328 115 14 2 180
Site 16 326 39 30 328 155 17 8 204
Site 17 279 23 13 328 181 15 8 105
Site 18 176 18 13 328 99 4 4 107
Site 19 139 10 4 328 184 3 3 190
Site 20 135 21 14 328 89 9 2 100
Site 21 149 14 6 328 97 12 7 116
Site 22 106 12 9 328 100 12 5 117
Site 23 142 13 6 328
Site 24 137 14 8 328
Site 25 97 17 8 328
Site 26 113 12 7 328
Site 27 251 9 7 328
Mean 178.4 21.8 9.2 218 122 12.73 5.45 140.18
Median 154 18 8 98 12 6 124

Table 2. The range in pore counts for all sites at Orthman Research Farm

Pore Sizes ST-hi NT-hi ST-mean NT-mean ST-low NT-low
1mm 326 203 178.4 140.2 80 69
1-2mm 41 29 21.8 12.7 9 2
2-5mm 29 11 9.2 5.5 2 2

As you contemplate all the numbers there is definitely a trend that strip till has some higher counts in all three pore sizes, even as we look at the lowest counts on the right side of Table 2 for ST-low and NT-low. I will provide some clues and observations as to what I believe has occurred here over the four years of the side-by-side tillage comparisons.

Discussion and Conclusions:
As we made these observations we also excavated 30cm x 30cm blocks and pulled them apart and counted earthworms at the same time of the pore counts. Think about it, earthworms burrow and leave nice round tunnels – PORES. Who is helping out both tillage systems, certainly the “Tunnel Kings of the Earth”. Our worm counts ranged from 8 to 36 earthworms per square foot in mid-May.
Because we at the Orthman Farm alternate each year where we run the 1tRIPr tool between the previous year’s corn row we allow the old corn crown to remain and disintegrate slowly where worms are very active and those root channels/holes are routes and places for earthworms to live, breed and eat. Our tillage from what we have seen encourages worms to move in and out of the till zone (soil density is generally less than where it is easier to burrow and leave tunnels and burrows. I have been observing this now for 32 years. During this four year side-by-side study and digging during the growing season I have seen and pointed out to whoever is with me that in the NT surface compaction becomes problematic with row crop systems with tractor, combine and grain cart traffic. This has broken down soil pores in this 2 to 6 inch zone where we carry out the soil pore counts. With strip-till we can alleviate this in the spring and see more pores in the spring months.

Figure 1: Pore counts in comparing high counts and mean values between Strip-Till (ST) and No-Till(NT), 2013

In this graphic we compare the ST high counts of pores to the NT high numbers along with what the mean values of the counts. In the green text box you can read that the Strip-Till numbers are slightly fewer than the highest counts made in the No-Till

Figure 2: Total pore counts, mean values compared as Strip-Till and No-Till and the lowest number of pores for each tillage type

In the above chart (Fig 2) I offer a different look at the mean pore count numbers and the lowest numbers of pores counted to demonstrate the differences.
Conclusions:
As I consider all what is here and the 1300+ root pits I have engaged into and then thousands of holes when I was involved in the National Soil Survey Program in 4 different states as a soil scientist, it is my opinion we see consistently more of all three major pore sizes in a Strip-Tillage System. Will it always be 25 to 40% more in numbers? No. If any conservation tillage farmer really makes a serious program to control all season traffic in and out and across of their fields the pore counts will be pretty close to the same. At the Orthman Farm we carry out harvest operations with grain carts moving all about to load and unload the combine to keep the harvest smooth and quick, similar to large corn growers in the Great Plains. We are confident that our tillage efforts will take care of 98% of all issues.
So as I conclude that as we advocate Strip-tillage, we will see more pores (three sizes We have observed that earthworms like to burrow deep in the tilled zones deep into the non-till zone of the strip-till and feed on the surface and then return. The diminished effort they have to make in the strip-till allows them quicker access to the previous crops residue. As they return to their burrows they stabilize the burrows due to their skin secretions making for larger conduits for water to enter the soil subsoil’s and substratum or underlying layers. Roots follow these tunnels with ease and I have observed 2 to 5 roots going on down one burrow frequently in the thousands of pits I have dug. Yes it sounds weird but folks, this is what makes the soils so dynamic and helpful to support healthier crops, improve soil sustainability and ultimately better yields.
All of the above offers to the grower a better chance to improve output of each seed he/she plants. I ask then, sharing our evidence and facts that soil physical characteristics do respond positively in the strip-till system to make a difference, it begs the question: are you helping your soils?

Download a copy of the report here: Benefits of StripTill_pores2013.

Strip-till water effects

Agronomist Mike Petersen documents soil pores in strip-till corn.

Orthman researchers are constantly looking for ways to help producers. Here, agronomist Mike Petersen and agronomy intern Logan Brown are studying “soil pores,” the tiny holes in soil that allow water to ‘infiltrate’ (soak into) the soil, getting this precious supply to the roots rather than letting it run-off or evaporate.

Mike is within one inch (“near surface”), using a 10X magnifying lens to determine how many and what size of pores there are in the soil. Look for details of this soil characteristic study in upcoming weeks.

Spring Strip-Till Excites Worms

Finished the strip-till operation couple of weeks before we got the corn and soybeans planted which ended just yesterday (5/21/13). We were smiling real big as we walked behind the 1tRIPr to see the great biological side of this method of preparing a seedbed. As you look in the photo glance at those wonderful tunnelers that were everywhere this year. Large numbers of worms busy chewing and tunneling to get leaves and pieces of corn residue. This was not staged, worms were like this behind 7 out of 8 rows, it was phenomenal folks. To me as a soil scientist and agronomist I am pleased as a kid with a new pair of special Nike shoes.
Between rain showers, couple of farmers nemesis such a wires that ground out and blow fuses in the most remote spots on a tractor, a wiring harnesses smoked, we got the planting accomplished and now corn is emerging in the strip till in 7 days. We at the Orthman Farm placed seed in some nice soil conditions, always in decent moisture with awaiting high quality fertilizer in th root zone placed in two locations below the seed. How can it not grow now?

Strip-Tillage in Australia

Courtesy Hardman Communication.

Equipment choice saves Toowoomba grower three weeks in busy planting season

(January 2013) –  Grower Wayne Ziesemer has been able to significantly improve his operation since moving to the new Orthman 1tRIPr strip till system which is built to place fertiliser and prepare the seed bed in the one pass.

Wayne runs a 1,500-hectare cropping operation spread across two properties at Bongeen, 55 km west of Toowoomba with his wife Leanne and parents, Peter and Daph Ziesemer. His summer cropping operation includes a rotation of 500 hectares of sorghum with either 500 hectares of corn or cotton depending on seasonal conditions.

His decision to move to the Orthman 1tRIPr six months ago was based on the machine’s ability to combine strip till and nutrient placement at two depths in the one pass.

20 row 36" 1tRIPr strip tillage machineThe Orthman 1tRIPr, distributed through Muddy River Agricultural, is built to perform in the heaviest of stubble, with its ability to cut the soil surface and subsurface residue, while ensuring consistent depth due to its parallel linkages. In comparison, conventional till systems can lead to soil compaction due to the increased number of passes required to plough or till the soil prior to fertiliser application.

“We were impressed by the fact that the machine has been tried and tested in the United States with operators finding it can deliver up to 15 to 20 per cent yield increases, which makes it an appealing choice for our operation” said Wayne.

Potential fuel savings were also appealing for Wayne. “Fewer passes translates to lower fuel costs which adds to our overall profitability.”

“Using the Orthman, we had a beautiful plant line to follow and we were exceptionally pleased with the consistency of the seed bed. A good seed bed means good yields so we’re looking forward to a promising season ahead.”

Wayne’s machine has been modified to ensure it can meet the varied fertiliser requirements for both his irrigated and non-irrigated land.

“We ordered the 18.28 m model but had it modified so that it can fold to 9.14 m when working on our irrigated property, which requires smaller equipment due to the heavier soil. Being able to space the machine accordingly gives us a lot of flexibility and saved us having to buy two pieces of equipment.”

Two one tonne Anhydrous fertiliser tanks are attached to either side of the tractor during fertilising operations along with a 6,000 litre Simplicity air cart which is towed by a John Deere 8360RT.

“We planted our corn crops in early January as we got the rains on time. We were pleased with the strike and emergence rate of our corn which we put down to the previous working of the Orthman 1 tRIPr,” said Wayne.

For more information on the Orthman 1tRIPr and Muddy River Agriculture’s range of equipment, go to www.muddyriver.com.au

See a video of this strip till machine here.

Newer Nitrogen Tools for We Strip-Tillers – Options to Consider!

For many of you, and for us at Orthman Research Farm near Lexington, Nebraska we are planning the pre-plant tillage operations of the spring 2013 to be underway very soon. Tillage via strip-till methods will be our way, but how about many of you as you consider the fertilization part of the puzzle? How will that be happening for you?
Just recently we attended a good set of meetings in Reno at the Western Fertility Conference to hear recent findings and interact with industry and research scientists about some gains in fertility management for row crops, small grains, and orchard/fruit crops. The issues of ground water contamination, overland flow issues getting into the major water course of the Mississippi River and major river systems of the West are challenging the way we growers must consider our operations. You all have heard about well waters reaching levels of nitrate in the water that surpass drinking standards not only for human infants but even livestock due to leaching and other contamination processes. Being good stewards now is very wise, but we are coming against issues of the past 65+ years of intensive farming with nitrogen sources.  After WWII and thoughts that “if a little is good than a whole bunch is that much more better.” Yeah bad grammar but it was an addage that numerous growers thought and employed. Now we pay for it and have to be that much more on top of our game.
The good folks I met, listened too and spoke with in Reno, NV are saying there are Nitrogen products on the market that will give better and sustained release to the crops root system over a longer period of time and resist the change from first introduction into the soil profile to convert to Nitrate and leach away before the roots have a chance to access to it in the soil solution. Products such as ESN™ being a granular urea coated with micro thin polymer, yes it is a dry product. This method of release can aid in slowed access to the urea-N product so it does not leach away, gobbled by the microbes or become mineralized so quickly that the plant root starves for N when called for by the growing above ground plant.
ESN™ is an Agrium product which responds to soil temperature and soil water content. Another product out on the market is Nutrisphere-N™ by SFP that works a bit differently than ESN™ but offers another management alternative for growers on how N releases into the soil environment. For the strip-till grower these products offer advanced ways to accomplish higher management of your N-fertility and feed the plant incrementally. Agrotain™ by Koch Industries, then there is Instinct™ by Dow are other products out there that all should be aware of so N management is not a willy-nilly part of how we furnish the corn, wheat, grain sorghum, dry edibles, cotton, peanuts, etc what is needed. As we learn more about these products from trials in each of our regions or even on a neighbors ground – we can better feed the crops we grow with the Nitrogen.
It was in the conference that we learned that especially with veggie crops N is in big demand for a short period and timing is everything. Consider maize/corn, we know it has three major calls if you will when N is in demand. Dump a hugeload prior to planting like 300 pounds per acre 30-90 days ahead of planting, do you really think it is going to sit still and not move deep or get fixed in the organic colloids or onto the clay complex or move off the surface if surface applied? Here is when these slowed release agents/products come into play to offer new solutions to our old loss problem. A little further study can really help you gain when and which product can work in your soils environment whether you have dry, wet, cold or what ever conditions.
In the strip-till system where the soils off to either side of where we strip-till 10 inches deep can be 2 to 8 degrees Fahrenheit colder, more moist if not wet and cause issues of root N-uptake and maybe even yield reductions early because the availability is just not there. You pour on N via anhydrous ammonia and expect because it is cooler that it will be there when the roots get to it, wow that could be an issue. It is a cheaper form of lots of N but is it the right one when any of it volitalizes or gets converted too soon? Cavities in the soil, shanked in and you may see it escaping, warmer than 50 degrees, dry soils – all issues and 20+% is poof, gone and that price differential just evaporated. Placing a charge of 250-300lbs/acre and then a couple-three inches of rain and the stuff will move even in clay loam soils 10-25 inches deeper than where you placed it. In some environments folks, the roots may never reach that and it is lost to never be had. Yes the same can happen to high rates of N via liquid products.

This day and age we are called to be better managers and come out of the shell the old way Daddy did it and move to spending time to educate how we can do better and wiser. Allocate time to have products be within reach of the roots when the demand for N is there will take new skills when we place it with the strip-till tool that we make called the 1tRIPr or another tool is very important. We, Mark and I at Orthman Farms are using some of the above products and getting positive responses that these products yield good results in grain and healthier crops. Check back with us or go to your agronomist or fertilizer dealer and learn about these products.

In California the watchers and monitoring agencies are clamping down on how fertility is managed, in Delaware and Maryland the environmental agencies by law demand fine-toothed control of N-P fertilization. In segments of the Central and Eastern Corn Belt states fall applications of N products are restricted and certain watersheds are being monitored and evaluated to stating growers may only apply 70lbs/acre (as an example) of N for a 200 bushel/acre corn crop. That is quite restrictive – yes? Other environments we can still be applying high amounts of N but to what cost? As a soil scientist and agronomist for Orthman Manufacturing I am going the route of top flight management with better products that will feed the plant incrementally. It has paid off and we encourage the same with the checking into the use of these good products that I named as a few of them to start with.
We will one day maybe feeding the corn we plant only half of what we have conventionally tilled into the soils and still yield 300 bushel/acre corn regularly. It has been done in the past three years in the Western Corn Belt under intensively managed irrigated corn. Instead of 300-350lbs N/acre researchers applied 140-150lbs/acre. Consider the dollars savings alone folks.

All of us who grow crops to reac a production goal know it takes fertilizers, either commercial or with use of manures.  We know our dollars stretch only so far and our water is stretching us to be better about how we grow crops.  We encourage you to place those nutrients in the soil precisely, with the understanding how much will the plant need and when.  Using the Strip-Tillage tools manufactured at Orthman is a great choice to put this all in motion.  Please contact any of us on the Sales, Marketing and/or Agronomy Team here at Orthman.

Strip-Tilling with Liquid Fertilizers for Early to Mid-Season Growth

Moisture Collection vs Moisture Lost

Image

by Mike Petersen, Lead Agronomist

Fall Strip-Tilled into Barley Stubble

Storms are advancing from the Southwest into the Central Corn Belt with blizzard-like conditions at times but are we getting enough moisture to provide replenishment? Further west in Western NE, KS, SD and into Colorado and Wyoming, we have much less snowfall – oh my pitifully dry.
One of the wonderful details about maintaining all last year’s stalks, leaves, shucks in the field is trapping all these snowfall events. Over across the road where the neighbor fall tilled or used his “vertical” tillage or disk tool the residue was sized, chopped and free to blow from here to the Gulf. Also simply put, the taller stalks left in corn to cause movement of lateral snow to drop and stay on the ground compared to the flattened soil surfaces. Many times snow blowing around can accumulate in the standing stalks and give you another 3 to 8 inches of snow, which means harvesting water.
Even if a grower strip-tills in the fall the surface profile of the soil/field is left very rough and allows for catchment areas to have snow stop and store-up in the field. Why all this? Every inch of these snows is priceless. We know that very few of us want to plant into dry soils, irrigate up if irrigation is possible, or just hope for the next rain to be plentiful to start the planted crop.
For the conventional tillage farmer each spring tillage operation has the potential for loss of moisture, and that could be up to 0.75 inch per tillage operation. As dry as it has been that is 8-10 inches of snowfall loss in one pass. Wow, consider that and we have had so little snow since December 1, 2012, I worry about the condition of the soil profile moisture even for the Strip-Tillers. So what growers may want to consider in the Western Corn Belt is waiting until the very last week to strip-till and then follow close behind with the planter. The Orthman 1tRIPr was designed way back in the late, late ‘90’s to be a connected set up of strip-till and planter attached. This year, 2013 there is a great deal of merit to give that a long look.

Strip tillage research results

Results are pouring in from strip tillage studies around the globe, and drought conditions worldwide are showing that strip-till works!

In the Snake River Plains of Idaho, the University of Idaho, USDA-ARS in sugar beets, and Orthman Manufacturing have teams up to determine beet quality, sugar content, soil Nitrogen, beet tonnage, and residue effects on stand and beet yield. Download the study results white paper here.

 

In central Nebraska, Petersen looked at continuous corn, comparing No-Till and Strip-Till methods on irrigated ground. Download the the study results white paper here.

Studies were also conducted at the Orthman Research farm testing precision fertilizer placement and effects of sidedress fertilizer using coulter-injection and RTK guidance. Download the study results whitepaper here.

A third test in central Nebraska looked at the effects of strip tillage and precision fertilization practices with soybeans. Download the study results whitepaper here.

Dr. Laura Gentry continued the University of Illinois Sustainable project and noted the benefits that strip tillage had in a tough year of drought. Download the study results whitepaper here.

 

 

Soil density and compaction was analyzed by Kip Balkom and the University of Georgia. This sustainable projects at Tifton, GA looked at strip tillage and its effects on peanut production. Download the study results white paper here.

 

 

In central Texas, Coufal-Prater conducted side-by-side studies in dryland corn plots, testing conventional tillage vs strip tillage. Download the study results white paper here.

 

 

In Mpumalanga, South Africa – JWL Enterprises are investigating strip tillage methods, looking at fuel savings, fertilizer placement, moisture loss, and all the other benefits that strip tilling can impact. Download the study results white paper here.

StripTillFarmer article on fertilizer placement

Hot off the press! Here’s a Dan Zinkand article from Strip-Till Farmer magazine… talking about the benefits of fertilizer placement and strip tillage.

Read the complete story here, courtesy StripTillFarmer.com

From the story:
For successful results in strip-till, fertilizer needs to be placed in a zone where the roots and seedlings of corn can readily access plant-food nutrients.

But soil types, weather conditions and soil-sample results that affect the application timing and fertilizer placement and choice can all be major factors in that success.

For example, shallow placement of anhydrous ammonia in spring strip-tilled fields can burn the roots and kill germinating corn. And if strip-tillers apply anhydrous ammonia in the fall when the soil temperature is too warm — or if they strip-till into sandy soils — nitrogen can drop out of the seed zone.

Fertilizer programs and placement need to be just right, leaving an array of important choices for strip-tillers to make.

From the Mike Petersen interview:
“Plant roots don’t seek nutrition,” Petersen says. “They live in the presence of nutrition. Roots are pulled down by gravity and follow the warming of soil. If nutrition is in the same areas as the growing roots, they will be fed. But if the roots have to hunt for nutrition, the plant suffers and yields suffer.”

In the first 45 days of corn growth, the roots tend to grow in two triangles, one on top of the other, Petersen says. The corn roots in the top triangle represent the first shallow growth in that triangle, which is 6 inches tall and 13 inches across at the base.

The second stage of root growth is in a triangle that is 8 inches tall and 18 inches wide at the base, Petersen says. The top point of the second triangle starts 3½ inches below the surface of the soil, which is the top of the first triangle of root growth.

Roots in the top triangle represent the first 20 days of corn growth, while those in the bottom triangle are the next 25 days of growth.

“We must provide fertilizer for the plant so it’s healthy up to 45 days after emergence, which is when the corn plant determines yield,” he says. “At 45 days after emergence, the plant sets the number of rows around the cob.

“In the next 20 to 40 days — right up to pollination and shortly afterward — the corn plant sets the number of kernels running the length of the ear.”

Read the complete story here on the StriptillFarmer site.